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May 20, 2008

What is the Perfect Body?

An excellent example of paper 2 by Aliesha Powers

What is the perfect body? Who gets to decide such a thing? Most importantly, why does a person care so much about their image? These are all legitimate questions I would love to ask to our so called "mother culture". You can see these body image "standards" all across our country everyday. They are strewn across our televisions and magazines daily. " The perfect body" consisting of a 6'2 girl that has tan skin and weighs 110 pounds. Women in our culture strain and strive in unhealthy ways to achieve such a body.

I am a product of this habitual analyzing of the body. I have and sometimes do compare myself with such women in the media, wishing I had her stomach or her thighs. Just in the past few years have I come to terms with my body and although I do wish for improvements, I know I am essentially ok with the way I look. This was much harder for me at a younger age, especially through my teen years.

Throughout my college career I have learned to think critically and logically. On one side of my thinking I realize that logically I should be happy with my body, that I am healthy and I shouldn't let these women in the media, whom I have never even met or will meet in my life, effect my self esteem or my self worth all from a glance at a picture. But then on the other side of my thinking, I realize, that I have been so exposed and saturated with the media's opinion on the perfect body that I will always be wishing. I will always be unsatisfied, although happy with my life and health at the moment.

Some blame on the media must be pointed out. I do believe that these corporate companies have in a sense taken advantage of our vulnerabilities as humans. They have created an untouchable image for the 95 percent of us that can't be super models. They focus on our so-called "flaws" which they have created and market them. So we all run out and buy the newest cloths and the newest products so we can have a taste of what it would be like to have such a body or appearance.

Yet, to dig a little deeper, it is our society that is perpetuating this cycle. The media did not come out of thin air. We have created this. It is like the Frankenstein movies, "we have created a monster!"

It's true. But I honestly believe that in the beginning we had our hearts in the right place. We wanted to create sustainability in the beginning. But people are selfish and it's easy to make a decision in the present time if it benefits you, without really, truly thinking about what kind of impact that same decision will have in the future.
I feel like we have dug ourselves a hole that we can't come back from.
And that is the reality of it. The body image the media has created is engraved in our culture.

One of the more shocking parts of this cycle is that it begins as soon as we are born. We are constantly exposed to stereotypes and visions of what we think we are supposed to look like. We never had a real chance to be an individual. Children today want whatever they see on television or whatever they read in magazines. And as they age, especially for young women, they feel the pressure to look a certain way and dress a certain way. So much emphasis is put on material things. These things are supposed to make a person feel pretty or special?

This is where I come back to being logical. This thinking is illogical. It doesn't make sense. Why do we let these multimillion-dollar companies control our self-worth with stuff? Its just stuff, it won't keep you warm on a cold night, it won't feed you or your family, and it won't give you a roof over your head. But still we are trapped in the game. Our bodies and appearance will continually be analyzed for generations to come. And the saddest part is that we made it this way.

There is also a fine line between a healthy body and a malnourished body in the name of achieving "the perfect body". Some children and adults today are starving themselves to get skinny. Some are vomiting up their food to try and get skinny. It is terrible and all in the name of "the perfect body". I don't believe there is any other place in the world that has such an epidemic on such a large scale. This means that our own culture's media has affected some people so deep that they actually put their health in danger to live up to our very own standards.

And it doesn't stop there. Plastic surgery is a fast growing market.
I'm sure everyone in our classroom today knows someone who has had a little "work done". Have we gotten to such a point that we feel the need to put our life at risk to go under the knife? There are serious risks in undergoing surgery. A person really could die from a 15-minute procedure. But we still take the risk, all in the name of "the perfect body".

It seems like nothing is organic anymore. People in our society will do anything to escape ageing or to enhance some feature on their body. Even starving yourself has become a norm. Although I have these feelings about our culture and I think them all the time and write them in this paper, I still know that I am a product.

I dye my hair, I wear the makeup, and I do wish I had a flatter stomach. These rituals I do everyday and the wishes that I have about my body will continue for the rest of my life. I live this culture everyday just like everyone else and I do want to fit in. Whether I like it of not, this is the way to do so. No one wants to be an outsider and I think that's what fuels a lot of us to do such crazy things.

All I can do is try to see the line between what will really make me happy and what is a product of my happiness. I will try to use my logic to rule out the things I know I don't need to do in the name of "the perfect body". People are flawed, in the eyes of our culture; everyone thinks they have some flaw. This will remain constant. But I just hope that I and anyone else who realizes they are in this cycle will be able to come to terms with their body and happiness. No one should strive for perfection because in that mind set they will always be let down. I think it will just have to take endurance to withstand the standards we have set for ourselves and strength in knowledge to know that we can be happy without any alterations.

The Effects of Advertising on Adults and Children

An excellent example of paper 2 by Tiffany Rozee

Advertisers work as social agents, a social agent is defined as "those who pass on social expectations"(Andersen, m & Taylor, F "Sociology in Everyday Life; chapter 4 2008) we know that Family, Religion, Peers and Media are all strong influences in the socialization process, but how do advertisements fit into the picture. We view them all over the world, there are studies to prove you can not ignore adds, even when turning off the sound, the visual picture alone can influence us. Even on a subconscious level we still absorb the message. It has been said that "People are most influenced, when they are not paying attention at all" ("The Ad and the Ego" Boihem, H. 1997") "Advertising monopolizes our space by reaching the culture by which we live"(The Ad and the Ego" Boihem, H. 1997")

We watch advertisements on television, read them in news papers & magazines and drive by them on the way to work, posted on billboards everyday. We hear them playing as we are walking around the market and in between our favorite song, on the radio. Our Friends, Co-workers and Family members can even, at times, be walking advertisements; for example, how many times have you heard something similar to:" You should really try this new dish washing detergent, it get's rid of water spots" or "You should try Revlon's eye shadow, it's much better than Cover Girl." Have we put enough thought, into how deeply effected we are by these ads? What pressure do we feel to try things; although they are things we might not normally try just because others are using it, or the commercial say's that "you are not ok, if you don't have....." Advertising's main objective is to "Produce consumers" (The Ad and the Ego" Boihem, H. 1997). Do we conform and purchase items to fit in with others, Co-Workers, Friends and Family, or do we purchase items because we think it will make us feel better, about ourselves that we will be prettier and feel sexier because of the new soap, or shoes we purchased. Or are we just a culture obsessed with "Purchasing" because we know that we can.

Advertisements can help to fill our minds with self doubt and can keep us at constant conflict with our selves. In particular, commercials and advertisements for beauty products are not geared to make you feel good about yourself and they are not created to make us see the good in each and everyone of us. They are urging people to consume, and they have figured out the most effective way to do so. This is to preying on what is wrong with you, what nine out of ten people are insecure about, looks and what others perceive us as. They know, no one person is perfect and by marketing on people's imperfections, they know they will find consumers. Though how does our brain interpret advertisements? Why is it some ads don't effect me at all, I can even find my self making fun of them; Though, other times I have seen an ad and thought to myself "I should probably get that, they say it works to help my hair become softer" Maybe my hair isn't soft enough. On some level the ad hit a nerve, the advertisers found something I was self conscious about and made be believe, by buying that conditioner, it would make me have "better" hair than I have now. That it would make me "happier having softer hair". That buying this product, everything will be "better". Most times after purchasing we aren't left with the feeling that we are prettier now we bought this, sometimes we are left with even more self doubt than we began with and guilt. We might have been expecting much more than what we got. And in turn, lead us once again to believe that we, alone, are not good enough.

What effect does Advertisements and Commercials have on children, there are many studies on the effects commercials have on children, One article in particular shows one impact advertisements have on young minds is; "The effects of commercials on children's perception of gender appropriate toy use" Sex Roles: A Journal of research, 2005 Pike, J & Jennings N) The article touches on the influence of stereotypical roles displayed on television, and how they can effect a way a child perceives males vs. female's. This is one of many different things that can right from the start give the wrong impression off, to a very impressionable mind .Context of a commercial has changed from what I can remember as a child; Although, I can still remember seeing the beautiful women on TV and hoping , one day I would look like her. I would cut out photos of models from magazines that I idealized; I think it gave me a false image of beauty. These days young Girls and Boys are seeing the Vitoria Secret model, and thinking "that's it "that's what beauty is. Then turning around and using this as the "standard" to live by. I can remember as I got older young men in my class, would have posters of Cindy Crawford from the "Drink Milk" ads. I would feel inferior in comparison to these models. What message is this sending a child by selling sex? Today's commercials and Advertisements have gotten increasingly inappropriate, though there has always been a level of sexism and/or exploitation of Women and Men there seems to be increasingly more adult humor and private subject matter shown on public television and broadcasted on radio; Involving; impotence, STDS and Lotions & Potions" for a better sexual experience, try this". Are these commercials children need to be constantly aware of? As adults, if you were in need of one of these products wouldn't we know where to find them? Should there be a warning before these commercials, or maybe they should be aired during times adults would be watching.

What about the inappropriate commercials for fast food, selling the sexy women washing a car in a swim suit, or using other sexual innuendos to sell a Hamburger. Recently, I watched a skit done for a Carl's junior fast food restaurant commercial. The commercial begins in the waiting room of a Plastic Surgeons office; women are sitting down waiting to speak to a Doctor. Soon, "Dr 90210" comes into the patients room and says " I have been reading your file, and it states you are interested in breast augmentation" The Doctor pretends to take a few measurements and at this point you have no idea who/what the patient is, he is speaking to. The Doctor then say's "Wow, kind of small", followed by, "Now there is nothing wrong with small breasts but I think in your case, it would build your self confidence if you went bigger" As he uses hand gestures to emphasize the size the breasts should be. Eventually, the camera pulls back and you see who the patient is, a live chicken. The commercial ends, showing a chicken sandwich with the ad" Naturally larger chicken breasts, on the new bacon Swiss crispy chicken sandwich" (Carl's junior, restaurant.) I know that this was an offensive commercial to some; I have actually spoken to other women who have seen it. I think of my self as a fairly calm and open minded person but after seeing this commercial I was genuinely offended. Sexuality, and promiscuity to sell a product, and using Women's sex appeal to sell a point is not only in- proper but is considered offensive. What is a young Girl to think by seeing this commercial is there any embarrassment at school by fellow class mates who have seen this commercial. By showing young boys and young ladies, Adult women dressing promiscuously to sell a product no matter what product is, gives off an array of negative assumptions and a false depiction of a Woman and how one should behave. Are the young boys going to grow up and believe their wife must look and behave this way? Isn't this all apart of the socialization process? And by children seeing these things as expectable behavior, going to set the pace for adulthood, and mold them into what they become as an adult. Like the saying goes, "children are like sponges" and "Socialization begins the moment a person is born" "(Andersen, M Taylor, H Sociology in Everyday life 2008)

Military recruiting, can be another form of inappropriate advertising in my eyes, one of the Army's slogans "There is strong and then there's Army strong" to me implies, you are only strong, if you join the military. Some of the words the military uses in their commercials like "Obey" and "Command" and that "there is nothing on this green earth as strong as, the Army." At one point saying, it "builds character" while in the back ground, the soldiers are carrying guns followed by explosions. This gives off a very confusing visual message, to me it says; that the way to build "character" is to join the military, that they use force and weapon to reach their objective. Many of the US Navy commercials, one slogan "accelerate your life" also used in a minivan commercial, seemed to be designed and filmed like a video game, with intense rock music playing in the back ground and vivid color, even the shots of the soldiers seem almost animated .Is this a plot to appeal to a younger generation, by making joining the Navy look like fun? Do Children need to hear these commercials, and are children more likely to join the military or make it a goal in life after seeing these commercials, or feel that you are only a "real man, or woman" if you join. There is a lot of preying on the minds of the young impressionable children taking place.

Following a string of violent events that happened in schools through out the US, Public Broadcasting developed a rating system for programs. The television company believed that children were behaving so violently towards others, due to the violent content shown on television. When Adult content, or Violent content was to be shown on television a "warning" would come across so parents could sensor what it was their children were about to watch. Why are commercials not censored, or why not have stricter guidelines to the content shown? Though commercials maybe not show any violence with in the 10-30 seconds it is aired and the chances following a commercial a child commits a violent crime against someone else is slim but what about the psychological dammage they might inflict on them selves, and the damage the commercial may have caused to their "self-esteem". "A racy commercial" can do "other damage. There are plenty of studies showing the negative effects some commercials have on children, poor self esteem being one; which, in turn can lead to eating disorders(in combination) can commercials directly lead to other disorders and depression? Like I stated earlier, the commercials that we catch in between our television shows are not priding us on how great we are, and telling us "You are perfect, there's nothing wrong with you" they are telling us there is something you need to change about yourself and "Constantly trying to meet the beauty ideals of the dominant culture can result in feelings of low-self worth and may encourage potential harmful behavior" (Andersen M.L, Sociology in Everyday life, Chapter-4 "conformity & Individuality.") So why it is commercials don't have to fall under stricter guidelines.

Many years ago, advertisers found the most effective way to reach children with ads, and by doing this not only did they reach in the parent's pockets, they created "Child consumers" who one day will turn into "Adult consumers" with much deeper pockets then their parents before them. In conclusion, It is the job of parents, consumers and people in general to make decisions wisely , when it comes to monitoring what their children watch on television, and to take into consideration it is not just programs that contain adult content or material not suitable for children, but commercials too. Explain to children what they are seeing, and take the time to teach children about confidence and self esteem, reinforce good habits. It is the job of the parent to do these things, not that of the advertisers. Children must learn to form their own opinions and ideas in life, and it is crucial that we take the time to prepare them for what they may see on television. Advertisements are designed to teach kids to" want", that they "can't live" without and that they "won't fit in" until they have what ever it is the advertiser is trying to sell. These tactics are the exact opposite of what a parent is trying to teach their children; which are, positive values, individual opinions and most of all self esteem; which, are a necessity in becoming intelligent, independent and confident adults, who will make good decisions.

Bibliography
Text Book : Andersen, L Margaret and Taylor, F Howard. 2008 Sociology in Everyday Life, Thomson Wadsworth: USA

Article: Pike, Jennifer and Nancy Jennings. 2005. Sex Roles: "The effects of commercials on children's perceptions of gender appropriate toy use."

Video: documentary, "The Ad and the Ego"
Director. Boihem, Harold. Parrallax Pictures Inc. 1997

Television commercial: Carl's Junior Restaurants: "Dr. 90210 " Carl's Junior Restaurant" dir. Morgan, Brett. Mendelsohn Zien, Advertising LLC. LA, California. 2006.

Internet: You Tube, LLC 2006 "Carl's Junior Restaurant, Dr 90210" http://www.youtube.com

Internet: You Tube, LLC "US Navy Seals Recruiting Ad" www.youtube.com
Posted by: kiquebobix

Internet: You Tube, LLC "US Army Recruiting Ad" "Army Strong, short version" www.youtube.com
Posted by: kiquebobix

Internet: Commander, Naval Special Warfare Command. 2000 Official U.S. Navy Seal web site
http://www.seal.navy.mil/seal/

Internet: Kids Health, for parents. The Nemours Foundation, 1995-2008
www.kidshealth.org

May 14, 2008

Culture

Excellent example of paper 2 by Devin Rentz

It is the sound pounding in peoples' heads that is so loud, most people have become accustomed or even deaf to it. Culture is the essence of mainstream. It is the dominant system of language, norms, folkways, mores, beliefs and values of a given society. It is imbued in children from the time they are able to be instructed. Its presence is overlooked simply because it is everywhere one looks. It is not necessarily a sinister bunch of ideas lurking in the shadows, but to realize the effects, both positive and negative, it has on the thoughts and actions of people, it deserves a closer examination. Mother Culture, which will be explored more after an understanding of culture is established, is a term used in Daniel Quinn's novel, Ishmael, to describe a peoples' early culture, their perception of this culture, and its relevance to the offspring culture they are presently a part of.

Culture arises from social relationships and social groups and is a product of social construction. The actions between people and the meanings that are consciously ascribed to these actions are the bedrock of any culture (Anderson and Taylor, 75). This idea is also the foundation of the sociological perspective of symbolic-interactionism, which states that the interpretation of an action, rather than just the action itself, is what actual communication is. Culture is shared, taught and learned, and is not a biological or genetic topic. This is what fundamentally puts it into a sociological category rather than a psychological one. The need for food is a biological drive, while the question of what food to eat or how to prepare dinner is answered by the culture a person is a member of, not a string of DNA (Collins, Law and Miraglia).


Since culture is passed on from generation to generation, the process of 'passing the torch' is a flashpoint in the continuity of culture. One of the most important tool to facilitate the transfer of culture is language. Language, including both written and vocalized words, is a complex system of metaphors for actions, objects and abstracts occurring in the physical and mental realities of a culture. It can be used to communicate and inform other people of experiences they have never experienced. And, like a game of telephone, pieces of a culture can be lost in translation and other pieces misconstrued. In George Orwell's futuristic, dystopian novel, Nineteen Eighty Four, the government is actively involved in deleting words from public usage in order to limit the thinking, and the actions that can follow thinking, of the population (Orwell, 78.) This fictional situation is in line with the Sapir-Whorf Synthesis which claims that languages determines the understanding of reality (Anderson and Taylor, 59.) The dynamic properties of language use, in combination with new discoveries and the evolution of ideas over time, ensures that culture is always changing.


It is important to note, however, that cultures resist change. People depend on culture to place them in a stratified society and the economic model a culture accepts to tell them what to do. A culture that is changing too quickly can experience cultural lag, which is a change in some parts of culture that is not happening at the same speed of other parts of the culture and culture shock, which is the disorientation of people in a rapidly changing or significantly different cultural situation. An example of cultural lag is the rejection of abortion by evangelistic and fundamentalist Christians to the legality of euthanasia in Oregon. Many Americans feel culture shock when returning to the United States after living abroad and finding their locality very different from the way they had left it.


These reactions stem from the values, beliefs and mores of a culture. The way a culture tries to organize its legal, political and economic systems has everything to do with what it views as right and wrong, true and false. The negative connotation that the word deviant carries with it wherever it goes is a manifestation of the pressure a culture puts on individuals to conform to what the majority believes and values.


Mother Culture as described in Ishmael is the perception of the history of one's culture and how it affects the people of a culture that traces its roots to the Mother Culture. In the United States, there is a tradition of individuality, independence and industriousness. These values stem from the origin of the United States in the Enlightenment Period when religious minorities found refuge here and so much of the population was comprised of refugees and immigrants. Titles of nobility did not hold any water and people were judged by their contributions of labor and knowledge to society.


In Ishmael, Quinn mostly focused on the negative aspects of Mother Culture in the United States and Western world, and the need for change. There still exists the Enlightenment idea that rationality makes humanity superior to other forms of life and there is a consequential cultural idea that nature was made only for humanity and its domination of nature (Quinn, 126-128.) Quinn, throughout the text, tried to influence the reader to escape what their Mother Culture told them so that they could see that they were as much a part of nature as the next organism and that the survival of life was dependent on humanity not trying to exterminate other life forms that did not aid in the growth of human power and population (Quinn, 130.)


Culture is not necessarily something to be eschewed. It is what allows a society to function. Of course, this is under the assumption that functionality is valued by a culture, but some axiom is needed to make normative judgments about culture. It could also be argued that biologically, humans need to be able to function to survive as humans are a pack oriented and dependent mammals, but this also makes the assumption that survival is a moral imperative, but, I digress.


With societal cooperation and harmony as a virtue, culture can help accomplish this. People living under the same cultural system are able to work together to accomplish things that they could not do alone. The building and management of cities is a perfect example of this need for cooperation. Cities such as my father's hometown of Detroit, MI are having serious issues with people who do not see eye to eye on the way things should be done. Some want political institutions to stretch out a greater social safety net for those who are falling through the cracks of poverty and drug addiction, while others claim that the population needs more respect for the American virtues of hard work and 'pulling oneself up by the bootstraps.' These issues are greatly exacerbated by racial tensions, economic recession in the auto making sector, and a mayor in the midst of a sexual scandal, demonstrating the role of cultural mores in the areas of sex and marriage.


Culture is the drive behind why societies do what they do. In order to prevent wars, civil wars, environmental destruction, crime, mass psychological dysfunction and poverty, culture must be examined to find the source of any problem. It is no surprise that the culture one is born into, and lives and breathes has a great, yet not always perceptible effect on a person. Let's take a closer look.

Bibliography

Andersen, Magaret L. and Howard F. Taylor. Sociology in Everyday Life. Thomson Wadsworth, United State of America.

Collins, Peg, Miraglia, Eric, and Law, Richard
http://www.wsu.edu/gened/learn-modules/top_culture/culture-index.html
26 May, 1999

Orwell, George. 1984. Harcourt, Inc. New York, New York. 1949.

Quinn, Daniel. Ishmael. Bantam/Turner Books. 1992.

Reshaping Nonmaterial Culture: The Global Affect of the Material Culture of the West

Excellent example of paper 2 by Kristy Reddick.

While various systems of trade and currency exchanges have spanned the globe for thousands of years, the late 20th century and early 21st century has been witness to the advent of a bona fide global economy. Rapid advancements in industry, technology and the birth of the "information age" have had dramatic effects upon business's ability to produce and market goods and services the world over. The West, most notably the United States, has been at the forefront of the commercialized global economy, exerting an incredible influence upon fellow industrialized states and developing nations. The fashion icons, franchise logos, foods, and film industry of the United States have radically impacted the material cultures of other parts of the world. Yet the affects of the globalized commercial economy and world wide information network extend beyond the absorption of US products and services. The nonmaterial aspects of world cultures are being vastly influenced by globalization. This phenomena is being embraced and celebrated by many people the world over but is met with opposition by others who view our cultural influence to be detrimental and dangerous to their societies. My intent is to briefly explore how nonmaterial aspects of culture in nations such as those in the Middle East have been influenced by the inclusion of material culture from the West.

Material culture may be defined as consisting of "objects created in a given society, which are its buildings, art, tools, toys, publications, and other tangible objects...[which are] significant because of the meaning they are given" (Anderson, 2008) . Nonmaterial culture can be deciphered by observing the "norms, laws, customs, ideas, and beliefs of a group of people" (Anderson, 2008). While nonmaterial culture is generally intangible, it can be thought of as the "guiding force" of the behaviors of a society. Material and nonmaterial aspects of culture continuously interact and influence one another. They are dynamic forces, subject to change and evolve through time. Due to the intrinsically linked nature of this relationship, a shift in material culture may have a striking effect upon nonmaterial culture, and visa versa.

The globalization of the world economy has enabled the United States to market its material culture to rest of the planet. In reflection upon our nation's media influence, David Rothkop of the Foreign Policy Forum notes that "the United States dominates [the] global traffic in information and ideas. American music, American movies, American television, and American software are so dominant, so sought after, and so visible that they are now available literally everywhere on the Earth" (Rothkop, 1997). Rothkop states that our material culture influences "the tastes, lives, and aspirations of virtually every nation". The terminology which Rothkop uses in the above mentioned excerpt may be interpreted as the positive reaction with which our products are being received in other nations. However, Rothkop continues by pointing out that many nations believe that American music, movies, television and software are "corrupting". He notes that France and Canada have passed laws which "prohibit the satellite dissemination of foreign - meaning American - content across their borders and into the homes of their citizens" and Iran, China and Singapore have "aggressively sought to restrict the [Western] software and programming" that reaches their people (Rothkop, 3). According to Rothkop, in the Middle East, media from the West is often referred to as "news pollution". The efforts of the governments of Canada, France, Iran, China and Singapore to limit or ban distinctly American music, movies, television and software indicates a strong conviction on behalf of the leaders of these nations that this form of our material culture is, by and large, not acceptable. Acquisition and unlimited access to these forms of entertainment would allow for greater dissemination of Western material culture, which in many parts of the Middle East, for example, is diametrically opposed to the predominant nonmaterial cultural values prevalent in the society.

The concept that the nonmaterial cultural values of the Middle East may be seen as in conflict with our Western material culture is exemplified in Gallup Poll conducted by Richard Burkholder of Princeton, New Jersey. The question "in your own words, what do you most resent about the West?" was posed to people within eight Islamic nations; Morocco, Jordan, Turkey, Kuwait, Lebanon, Indonesia, Pakistan and Iran. Four responses from each nation were graphed, resulting in an overwhelming percentage majority claiming that what which is most resented about the West is connected to "social aspects". The category of "social aspects" is elaborated into the West as "too free, low morals, free sex, impolite to elders, [and] dislocation of family relations" (Anderson, 2008). The eight nations polled in this survey revealed elements of their nonmaterial culture in their responses. According to this study, Islamic nations highly value morality, structure, engrained rules concerning sex, respect for elders and cohesive family units. It seems as though Western material culture is perceived as not upholding these important Islamic cultural norms and values, thus is viewed as detrimental and dangerous.


The globalization of the economy and information systems has reshaped the material culture of nearly every society on earth. The material culture of the West continues to pervade the globe, often disseminating into other societies and influencing the nonmaterial culture of the people. When a society rejects various forms of the material cultural of West, it is important to recognize that this may be due to the fact that the beliefs and values which constitute the nonmaterial culture group may not reflect the meaning implied in the Western material culture.


Works Cited

Anderson, M. L. (2008). Sociology in Everyday Life. USA: Thomson Wadsworth Co.

Rothkop, D. (1197). In Praise of Cultural Imperialsim? Effects of Globalization on Culture. Retrieved April 13, 2008, from Global Policy Forum: http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/cultural/globcult.htm.